compiler vs interpreter

If you are a computer science or an IT student, you must be aware of the term’s compiler and interpreter. But here you will get the overall idea about how does it work. What is a compiler? A compiler vs interpreter is a translator that reads a program written in one language that is the source language. It translates it into an equivalent program in another language that is the target language.

A compiler computer is a program that helps to convert code described in a higher programming language into machine code.

The interpreter is mainly a computer program that can transform the distortion of every high-level program.

These include source code, pre-compiled code, and scripts all this. Compilers and interpreters are almost the same thing; both of them help to machine-transform high-level programming languages.

This translation process involves the reporting of the errors present in the source program by the compiler. Here source and target language may vary according to the application, but most of the time, the target language is a machine language. There are two parts of the combine- among which the frontend divides the program into fundamental constituent parts and checks the grammar semantics and syntax of the code.

We need to know the differences between the compiler and the interpreter.

Although they are both considered a computer program. There are some differences in their work. We will learn in this discussion the differences between a compiler and an interpreter.

Here we are going to learn about the differences between the compiler vs. interpreter. So, let’s get started.

Phases of a compiler:

There are six phases of a compiler. The first four are grouped into the front end, and the last two are grouped into the back end. Symbol table and error handler are connected with each phase.

Lexical analyzer:

The first phase of the compiler. The stream of characters constructing the source program and grouped into tokens. Now, what are tokens and lexemes here? The token is a logical building block of a language, such as a keyword, identifier, operators, punctuators, etc. And the pattern is a rule that describes the characters that can be grouped into tokens.

Now, what does lexeme mean here?

Here we have a pattern which shows the working of a lexical analyzer, here the position is identified as a token identifier, where the place is a lexeme and identify as a token. Now it reads the lexeme one by one from left to right where the position is scanned and identified in the first place, then the assignment operator then the identify initial and so on.

Syntax analyzer:

It is the second phase of the compiler. It involves the grouping of the tokens of the source program into grammatical phrases. Those phrases used by the compiler to synthesize the output. Usually, the grammatical sentences of the soul program are represented by a parse tree. So this is how the compiler checks the program is syntactically correct or not.

The parse tree helps tp generate the expression position equal to initial plus weight*14 and generated by syntax analyzer.

Semantic analyzer:

The third phase of the compiler is the semantic analyzer. A semantic analyzer checks the source program for grammatical errors and gets us a type of information for the subsequent code generation phase. It uses the structure determined by the syntax analysis phase that parses trees to identify the operators and operands of expressions and statements. It also checks that each operator has operands data permitted by the source language is a specification.

Type checking is an essential part of the semantic analyzer.

As an example, for binary arithmetic operators applied to an integer and real in this case, the compiler may need to convert the integer to a real. Into the real interior note explicitly turns an integer into a real. Alternatively, since the operand of the interior is a constant, the compiler may instead replace the integer constant by an equal and real constant.

Intermediate code generator:

The intermediate code generator is the 4th phase of the compiler. And it creates a temporary name to hold the values computed by each instruction.

This intermediate representation feature should be easy to produce and easy to translate into the target program.

One of the intermediate forms widely used is three address codes. Generally, these presentations must do more than just computing expressions like handling flow control construct and procedure calls, etc.

The given expression generates the intermediate code. Reduce the consumption and speed of the execution of the machine code. So, this Optimize code generated by this intermediate code.

Code optimizer:

Reduce the memory consumption and speed of the execution of the machine code. So, this is the optimized code generated by this intermediate code.

Code generator:

It is the last phase of the compiler. It generates the target code consisting of assembly relocatable machine code.

Symbol table and error handler:

Symbol table management is an essential function of a compiler. It records the identifiers used in the source program and collects the various attributes of the identifiers. While an error handler detects report correct the errors encountered in between the different phases of a compiler. Each phase in compiler encounter errors suggests lexical phase checks for the characters that don’t form token of the language.

The syntax phase finds the token steam that violets the basic rule. Semantic phrase tries to detect constructs that have the right synthetic structure but no meaning to the operation involved. So, these errors are handled by the error handler.

Uses interpreter:

What is an interpreter, and how is it different from the compiler? Now the interpreter is a simpler translator. Rather than producing a target program as a translation, it performs the operation employed by the source program. That is lexing, parsing, and type checking. It includes the parcel, but instead of an intermediate code generator, the interpreter goes through the internal representation of the source code. Suggest an abstract syntax tree and execute the code directly;

The main advantage of an interpreter is that it facilitates the testing of the program at various points, and the demerit of the interpreter is that it is quite slower than a compiler.

Main differences between them:

Now you are going to highlight some main differences of compiler vs. interpreter briefly. Now we have a comparison chart that shows the crucial differences between the compiler and interpreter.

  1. A compiler works as a translator and it translates the entire program at once, where the interpreter translates the same program statement by statement.
  2. The compiler generates intermediate object code; on the other hand, the interpreter does not produce any intermediate code.
  3. For compiler, the complete relation compilation is done before execution, whereas interpreter compilation and performance take place simultaneously.
  4. The compiler is generally faster than an interpreter; On the contrary, when an error occurs in an interpreter, it prevents its translation, and after removing the error, reading resumes.
  5. The compiler requires more memory due to the creation of the object code, as against the interpreter requires less memory as it does not create intermediate object code.

  6. Compiler displays all errors after compilation on at the same time, while in the interpreter. The mistake of each line is revealed one by one.
  7. This debugger permits you to use symbols from the source program that suggests variable names. In contrast, the object program generated by a compiler and a linker generally runs by itself. Information from the source program such as line numbers and names of the variables, the mic is not present in the object program. So, when a runtime error occurs, the application may merely a bot and perhaps print a message containing the wrong instruction address. Then the debugger is responsible for figuring out the corresponding source statement. It is by the error detection in the compiler is quite tricky as compared to the interpreter.
  8. C, C++, C# (Sharp), and typescript are the compiled languages, whereas PHP, Python, Perl, Ruby are the interpreter languages.

Only java is both:

Is Java a compiler or interpreter? Yes, it is natural for many of us to ask this question. Both the compiler and the interpreter provide the same benefits on the go. Java programming compiler and interpreter are both performed in the same way. There is no difference between them only in the use of Java. This is because Java itself is an object code.


Compilers and practitioners are both intended for almost the same purpose and work in and around their work in the same but different operating mode. Compiler and interpreter have advantages as well as disadvantages as translated compiler vs interpreter languages are considered cross-platform, but codes are portable. We have learned much more in this discussion from both compiler and interpreter.

In some cases, the compiler works faster than the interpreter.

On the other hand, the interpreter performs many issues efficiently. However, at present, these two have contributed in many cases. Many things can be done very quickly by using them. The use of compilers and interpreters above is increasing at present. These are considered to be useful for different needs.

Compiler vs. interpreter, there are many differences between these languages. However, both play an essential role in current technology. Compiler and interpreter efficiently perform tasks in different styles of these two different types of programming languages.

You can easily distinguish between the two after using any of the two programs. A compiler reduces the source code compiler vs interpreter to the original machine code, then creates an executable file for it and saves it as a previous object. Once executed, the compiled program is used directly in the machine code. Importantly, an interpreted program will take longer to run than an organized plan.

When a compiler comes, the programming language has to follow the rules of sentence structure. So, if we do something wrong, we need to change the fabric of our program. Otherwise, it will not show any results.


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