oops concepts in python

A Definitive Guide of oops concepts in python

Nowadays, computers are everywhere. And to run this computer, computer programming languages are evolving every day. One of them is Python. And here, we will talk about the OOPs concepts in Python language. 

What do you think of how many programming languages are available now? Statistics say that around 9,000 of programming languages exist today. However, 50 languages are the most popular.

By the way, we have picked a topic of the OOPs concepts in Python for today’s discussion as we all know that Python is a top-ranked programming language nowadays.  

First of all, we will talk about Object Oriented Programming (OOP). After that, we will move to our main topic. 

Basics of oops concepts in python

So, We see the changes in programming languages for years. Commonly, the methodology and algorithms are changing at every moment. In today’s world, the most famous method of programming applications is Object-Oriented Programming.

What Is Object-Oriented Programming?

OOP is a way of programming that supports the idea of Class as well as Objects. As well there are other types of ideas also part of this methodology. So, We can say inheritance, Abstraction, Polymorphism, and so on.  

Actually, programmers illustrated OOP in such a way that anyone can focus on an object. However, what we see around ourselves is everything is an object. 

Suppose, you can take a human being as an object. Then, the human has some properties like name, address, etc. Even If you take a chair as an object, you can take its size, material, etc. 

Object-Oriented Programming Vs. Procedural Oriented Programming

 

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)Procedural-Oriented Programming (Pop)
OOP is a bottom-up approach.Pop is a top-down approach.
It is extra secured and protected. It is not sufficiently secured and protected.
The program turns into an object.The program turns into a function.
An object can move within member functions.In Pop, data can move from function to function within a program.
Object-oriented programming supports inheritance.Procedural-oriented programming does not support inheritance.
OOP let its Access modifiers ‘public’, private,’ protected.’Pop does not allow access to modifiers. 

 

The OOPs Concepts in Python

From the beginning, Python is an OOP language. Programming has become easy as creating and classes and objects were simple. 

Usually, OOP languages form around them with objects rather than actions. We saw historically that you input data, then process it, and finally come to an output. But OOP concepts are different from others.

These types of languages do not care about logic. Besides, they care about objects and manipulate them in their way. The first and foremost step of OOP is to select the item. After that, you should process and observe how they relate. 

The concepts of object OOP languages are elementary, even for beginners. So without wasting time, let us give you a real-world example. Usually, we categorized human beings into two groups. Male and Female, isn’t it?

But both of them have some everyday things such as two legs, two ears, nose, mouth, etc. Both groups can run, talk, smile, and have expression.

By the way, some other parts are not expected.  Their uncommon things, such as some specific body parts and where a female can give birth, are a male can’t.

 

But now, let us talk about how all these things are related to OOPs concepts in Python.

Some Common Terms of oops concepts in python and Their Details

Let us elaborate on the terms and discuss their every detail. We will try to show every general concept of Object-Oriented Programming. 

Class

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As an example, if we take humans as a class, then it will define its properties and functions. And the properties and functions of a human being are respectively having body parts and performing different actions. 

Let us go for details.

You are a human being and think yourself as a class. A class supports the ability to confirm similar kinds of objects.

And then, the Class will operate both data and functions on a bundle as a unit. For instance, there is a class, and you have named it Car. The class Car has some basic properties or data such as name, model, brand name, chassis number, manufacturing date, etc.

Also, it has some functions such as it can move, brakes, change the gear, and so on. So, the meaning of saying is that all the essential features will be defined in our class Car.

We can make objects by filling the values of the data and functions such as name and model. And then finally, the class Car can perform its tasks with items.

Cars
Data:

  1. Name.
  2. Brand.
  3. Company.
  4. Manufacturing Date.
  5. Chassis Number.
Functions:

  1. on_engine()
  2. brakes()
  3. clutch()
  4. horn()

Objects

Normally, objects are the real ones that we see around us. Classes like HumanBeing, Male, or Female are the logical definition. My name is Haidar, and I am an object of Class, such as a Male.

So, we can say that an object is a physical entity. You can consider anything as an object. What we see with our empty eyes is objective.

You, as a software programmer, have a computer, keyboard, or mouse. These are all objects in the OOP language.

By the way, you can classify objects by three characteristics, such as:

  • Identity: An identity is for identifying an object. Every object has its names, recognition. This identity is information about this object. People can identify them with these marks.
  • Properties: Properties are something like quality. And the attribute of the object. Every object has some properties. You should understand the properties of a program. An example of properties is like the age and gender of a human being.

If you talk about a car’s property, it will be chassis number, Class of the engine,e, etc.

  • Behavior: We call the function of every object as a behavior. So action is equivalent to parts. An object of a class, some activities, and that is called a function. For example, as a programmer, you can write code, a robot makes a move, etc.

Data Hiding

This is a core topic of OOPs concepts in Python. It helps you to identify the security of data from your surroundings. You can create data hiding for many reasons. One of them is accessing an object’s data. You can also prevent it from accidental modification. 

 

Hence, data hiding works for functions as well. Another simple information about OOP is you can define classes as public, private, and protected data. 

Furthermore, no one can access private data or functions. These are the secured data. On the other hand, public data can be accessed from anywhere outside. Finally, the last one is protected data. It is more or less something like available data. However, you cannot access protected data or function from outside.

Class Variable

This kind of variable shares its value from parents. They define a class within a class. However, you do not need to use this type of Class often.

Instance Variable

This type of variable is defined inside of a program. And it will come from the recent example of a class. 

Data Member

When a class variable inputs some data, then it calls data members. This data is related to class instances.

Inheritance

Let us consider a human beings, a class, and it has some properties as well as functions. The properties are ears, mouth, nose, etc. The functions are its behaviors like walk, smile, etc. So these properties and functions are the inheritance of the Class called HumanBeing.

So, inheritance is all about defining a set of properties. We can define functions as well. After that, we can place them on one site, reuse them when necessary. 

Usually, Python supports simple, multiple as well as MultiLevel inheritance. 

Abstraction

Abstractions are the things we see with our eyes. Abstraction hides unwanted stuff from the world. For instance, a human can smile, cry. We are just the functions of how a human is smiling or crying, not the inside mechanism. Thus, here abstraction works.

Encapsulation

So, The idea is a difficult one to discuss. Let us say our legs and hands are bound. Besides, it helps us to move our bodies. So, we can say that this binding process is Encapsulation. 

Method

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Basically, the method is a particular function in object-oriented programming. So, It is explained in the class definition often. However, methods still use some extra functional classes.

Polymorphism

The word Polymorphism comes from two words, Poly+Morph. The meaning of this is Many Forms. You will need to create various functions with the duplicate name. But remember one thing that you should also have other parameters.

For instance, consider add() a function. This function will add its parameters and return the results. In Python programming, we define this very simply. 

This concept redefines the process. It changes the way of working. Either it might be changing the whole system. 

We can achieve Polymorphism in two ways. One is function overloading, and another is operator overloading.

Function Overloading

You can create a function using function overloading in OOP. It would help if you made a distinct function with the previous name. By the way, you can use other parameters too.

For example, you may take a function to add(), and this function will add all its parameters. After that, it will return the results. Below we will show how you will define it in Python.

def add(x, y): oops concepts in python

       return x + y

 

The above code can execute the function calls like this:

 

>>> add(4,5)

 

Here the add function will accept two numbers as input. However, you may want to add 3 or 4 digits as well. 

 

Then, there is a solution for you. The answer is you will need to define the function add once more. After that, you will see three parameters, and we say this process as Function Overloading.

 

# for adding 3 more numbers,

def add(x, y, z):

      return x + y + z;

 

# for adding 4 more number,

       def add(x, y, q, z):

             Return x + y + q + z;

 

So, you see that we can call the add() function multiple times.

 

Operator Overloading oops concepts in python

Operator Overloading is a vital topic of OOPs concepts in Python. It makes it easier to code as object-oriented programming. However, we know arithmetic operators such as addition, multiplication, division, and so on.

 

Python has a unique character. It can read operators in different ways depending upon the situation.

 

For instance,

 

>>>print(7 + 3) 

 

Indeed, it will return output 7, but

 

>>>print( “Hello” + “World”)

 

So, This code will give you an output like “HelloWorld.” Therefore, you see here how an + operator executes the addition operation. Also, when it runs the strings, it does concatenation.

 

In the same way, multiplication operators also do differently based on datatype. 

 

For example, 

 

>>>print( 5*9 )

 

gives 45 but a string, 

 

>>>print (“hello”*3)

 

Gives “hello hello, hello.” And this another instance of operator overloading.

 

Syntax to Define a Class

So, You can define a class very quickly. So, it is not a hard task to execute. Also, You will need to use the word Class. So, The Class will follow by a name. After that, you will give your Class and a colon.

 

So, the standard system to begin the name of a Class by choosing capital letters. Moreover, you will use the camel case style too. Also, The Class will start from the next line, and it will include the definition.

 

The other vital thing to remember is that you should indent the code. The Class is just like a template. There is no storage available when the time will come.

 

Conclusion of oops concepts in python

So, Can we say Python is 100% object-oriented? Also, The OOPs concepts in Python are indeed clear and concise. Python does not have access as private as Java has.

 

Therefore, I hope you get a minimum idea after reading this article about OOPs concepts in Python. So, This article tried to give you a short notion about object-oriented programming languages too.

 

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